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Using Boolean Operators

Named for English mathematician George Boole (1815 - 1864), Boolean operators are used to connect and define the relationship between the words in your search. There are three operators that you can use:

AND All terms listed must be contained in the citation; abstract; or in the case of a full-text database, the article. jelly AND fish will find results that have both words present.
OR Just one of the listed terms will need to be present in the citation, abstract or article. dog OR canine items in your result set will have either the word dog or the word canine.
NOT The word following the NOT will be excluded. bee NOT spelling will find results on the insects but not the competitions.
Last updated May 12, 2011 by Chris Kretz