Text Formatting Rules

This page provides a more complete list of some of the markup sequences available in PmWiki. Note that it’s easy to create and edit pages without using any of the markups below, but if you ever need them, they’re here.

To experiment with the rules, please try editing the WikiSandbox.

Table of contents


Paragraphs

To create paragraphs, simply enter text. Use a blank line to start a new paragraph.

Words on two lines in a row will wrap and fill as needed (the normal XHTML behavior). To turn off the automatic filling, use the (:linebreaks:) directive above the paragraph.

  • Use \ (single backslash) at the end of a line to join the current line to the next one.
  • Use \\ (two backslashes) at the end of a line to force a line break.
  • Use \\\ (three backslashes) at the end of a line to force 2 line breaks.
  • Use [[<<]] to force a line break that will clear floating elements.

Indented Paragraphs (Quotes)

Arrows (->) at the beginning of a paragraph can be used to produce an indented paragraph. More hyphens at the beginning (--->) produce larger indents.

->Four score and seven years ago our fathers placed upon this continent
a new nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that
all men are created equal.
Four score and seven years ago our fathers placed upon this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.

Inverted Arrows (-<) at the beginning of a paragraph can be used to produce a paragraph with a hanging indent. Adding hyphens at the beginning (---<) causes all the text to indent.

-<Four score and seven years ago our fathers placed upon this continent
a new nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that
all men are created equal. 
Four score and seven years ago our fathers placed upon this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.
--<Four score and seven years ago our fathers placed upon this continent
a new nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that
all men are created equal.  And that food would be good to.
Four score and seven years ago our fathers placed upon this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. And that food would be good to.

Blocks of text to which (:linebreaks:) has been applied can be indented by preceding the first line of the block with indention arrows (->) and aligning subsequent lines under the first. An unindented line stops the block indentation. See Cookbook/MarkupTricks for an example.

Bulleted and Numbered Lists

Bullet lists are made by placing asterisks at the left margin. Numbered lists are made by placing number-signs (#) at the left margin. More asterisks/number-signs increases the level of bullet:

* First-level list item
** Second-level list item
### Order this
#### And this (optional)
### Then this
** Another second-level item
* A first-level item: cooking
## Prepare the experiment
### Unwrap the pop-tart
### Insert the pop-tart into the toaster
## Begin cooking the pop tart
## Stand back
  • First-level list item
    • Second-level list item
      1. Order this
        1. And this (optional)
      2. Then this
    • Another second-level item
  • A first-level item: cooking
    1. Prepare the experiment
      1. Unwrap the pop-tart
      2. Insert the pop-tart into the toaster
    2. Begin cooking the pop tart
    3. Stand back

Also see: ListStyles, Cookbook:OutlineLists and Cookbook:NumberedHeaders

Definition Lists

Definition lists are made by placing colons at the left margin:

:term:definition of term
::second-level item: definition of 2nd-level item
term
definition of term
second-level item
definition of 2nd-level item

Whitespace Rules

Whitespace indentation in lists. Any line that begins with whitespace and aligns with a previous list item (whether bulleted, numbers or definitional) is considered to be “within” that list item. Text folds and wraps as normal, and the directive is honored.

# First-level item\\
  Whitespace used to to continue item on a new line
# Another first-level item
  # Whitespace combined with a single # to create a new item one level
deeper
  1. First-level item
    Whitespace used to to continue item on a new line
  2. Another first-level item
    1. Whitespace combined with a single # to create a new item one level deeper

Otherwise, lines that begin with whitespace are treated as preformatted text, using a monospace font and not generating linebreaks except where explicitly indicated in the markup. (Another way to create preformatted text blocks is by using the [@...@] markup.)

Horizontal Line

Four or more dashes (----) at the beginning of a line produce a horizontal line.

Emphasis

  • Enclose text in doubled single-quotes (''text''), i.e., two apostrophes, for emphasis (usually italics)
  • Enclose text in tripled single-quotes ('''text'''), i.e. three apostrophes, for strong emphasis (usually bold)
  • Enclose text in five single-quotes ('''''text'''''), or triples within doubles (five apostrophes), for some other kind of emphasis (usually bold italics)
  • Enclose text in doubled at-signs (@@text@@) for monospace text
  • Use [+large+] for large text, [++larger++] for larger, [-small-] for small text, and [--smaller--] for smaller.
  • Emphasis can be used multiple times within a line, but cannot span across markup line boundaries (i.e., you can’t put a paragraph break in the middle of bold text).

Other styling

'+big+', '-small-', '^super^', '_sub_', 

{+insert or underscore+}, 

{-delete or strikethrough or strikeout-}

big, small, super, sub,

insert or underscore,

delete or strikethrough or strikeout

  • `WikiWord WikiWord neutralisation

See also Wiki Styles for advanced text formatting options.

References

  • Use words and phrases in double brackets (e.g., [[text formatting rules]]) to create links to other pages on this wiki.
  • On some PmWiki installations, capitalized words joined together (e.g., WikiWords) can also be used to make references to other pages without needing the double-brackets.
  • Precede URLs with “http:”, “ftp:”, “gopher:”, “mailto:”, or “news:” to create links automatically, as in http://www.pmichaud.com/toast.
  • URLs ending with .gif, .jpg, or .png are displayed as images in the page
  • Links with arbitrary text can be created as either [[target | text]] or [[texttarget]]. Text can be an image URL, in which case the image becomes the link to the remote url or WikiWord.
  • Anchor targets within pages (#-links) can be created using [[#target]].

Headings

Headings are made by placing an exclamation mark (!) at the left margin. More exclamation marks increase the level of heading. For example,

! Level 1 Heading
!! Level 2 Heading
!!! Level 3 Heading
!!!! Level 4 Heading

Level 1 Heading

Level 2 Heading

Level 3 Heading

Level 4 Heading

Escape sequence

Anything placed between [= and =] is not interpreted by PmWiki. This makes it possible to turn off special formatting interpretations and neutralise WikiWords that are not links (even easier is to use a tick  in front, like `WikiWord).

For preformatted text blocks, use the [@...@] markup.

[@
Code goes here like [[PmWiki.PmWiki]]
'$CurrentTime $[by] $AuthorLink:  [=$ChangeSummary=]'; #just some code
@]
Code goes here like [[PmWiki.PmWiki]]
'$CurrentTime $[by] $AuthorLink:  [=$ChangeSummary=]'; #just some code

It is also useful to use [= =] within other wiki structures, as this enables the inclusion of new lines in text values. The example below shows how to include a multi-line value in a hidden form field.

(:input hidden message "[=Line1
Line2=]":)

Special Characters

Current blog, fresh information, I read it from time to time!!…

Tables

Tables are defined by enclosing cells with ‘||’. A cell with leading and trailing spaces is centered; a cell with leading spaces is right-aligned; all other cells are left-aligned. An empty cell will cause the previous cell to span multiple columns. (There is currently no mechanism for spanning multiple rows.) A line beginning with ‘||’ specifies the table attributes for subsequent tables. A ‘!’ as the first character in a cell provides emphasis that can be used to provide headings. This is interesting stuff.

||border=1 width=50%
||!Table||!Heading||!Example||
||!Left   || Center || Right||
||A       ||!  a B   ||     C||
||        || single ||      ||
||        || multi span   ||||
TableHeadingExample
LeftCenterRight
Aa BC
 single 
 multi span

Can’t find it here?

See MarkupMasterIndex, Tables, Table directives, or Links.

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This page may have a more recent version on pmwiki.org: PmWiki:TextFormattingRules, and a talk page: PmWiki:TextFormattingRules-Talk.